I heard you bitching at school ” gnagnana too bad, I have to learn the figures of speech gnagnagna it’s useless gnagnagna” (yes, you often said “gnagnana”), and you were wrong. You were wrong because in reality, figures of speech are not as boring as it looks, and especially because we use them all the time on a daily basis. Without knowing it, you go out of stylistic devices because you are talented poets. Be proud of yourself. I am that.
1. The apocope
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The apocope is when you remove the end of a word and only keep the beginning. It’s kind of an abbreviation, basically.
Example : ” What do you rack beautiful ? Me yesterday after physiotherapist I went to cinema and… wait, don’t you know the movies? Mdr shame man. Bah tell yourself that it’s a room with a big TV and seats. »
The trick of hyperbole is exaggerating what you say to amplify reality. It makes your speech more interesting for others (and that’s not a bad thing).
Example : “I wanted to have an aperitif outside, but there was a million wasps that circled around me, it was impossible. So I had an aperitif in it. Only. Without anyone. I hate my life. »
It is a figure of speech which consists in attenuating its remarks, often by using a negative form.
Example : “Mmmmm he is not bad your tagine Monique, not like that crap of gratin dauphinois you served us the other time. »
Euphemism, basically, is to tone down a sentence to soften it a little.
Example : “If I came to see you today it is to tell you that there will be a restructuring. Yes, Patrick, that means you’re fired, but I thought restructuring went better. In short, Patrick, you must understand me, you are a senior… YES it means that you are old. We don’t want you anymore Patrick. Bye. »
Yes, it’s probably the simplest figure of speech, but it’s still a figure of speech, so it counts. No need to explain how it works, the example will suffice.
Example : “Don’t you think the sun shines like a ball of fire… » “It’s actually a ball of fire, Jocelyne. you are dumb like a broom. »
To put it vulgarly, it’s a bit like a comparison, but without a term of comparison like “as” or “such”. You use it often because some of the catchphrases are already metaphors, like “sticking to your principles” (because the person actually isn’t REALLY sticking).
Example : “I spoke to Agnès yesterday, she is devoured by remorseit is a real fountain, she wet my shirt with her tears. » “Damn, a nice brand new shirt…”
It consists in speaking of a part to designate the whole. For example, refer to cyclists as “two wheels”.
Example : “I’m fed up with two wheels. The next one who gets me drunk, I crush him, then I get out of my car and I wash my bumper with his shirt. »
It’s a bit more general than synecdoche, but basically it’s replacing one term with another that’s close to it. It can be the container for the content, or the effect for the cause, or even use the origin of an object to designate the object.
Example : “We smoke a little Havana ? » “Stop Michel, cigars are disgusting, everyone knows it. »
Tautology is defining something by this something. Tautology is a tautology what (You see?)
Example : “Can you tell me what these messages are that you send to Stephanie’s other slut? “Well it’s just messages. »
10. The antiphrase
It is saying something to mean the opposite. A process often used in irony, which we practice every day.
Example : ” Wow, How brave to flee as soon as I speak to you again about last summer, Céline. Oh yes you can be ashamed, after all it was you who cheated on me with Bertrand’s chihuahua. »