How the Cold War Brought Religion Into Public Schools

On June 14, 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a bill to insert the phrase “under God” into the American Pledge of Allegiance that children recited each morning at school. Previously, the pledge – originally written in 1892 – contained no reference to religion.

The drive to add “under God” to the pledge gained momentum during the second Red Scare, a period when American politicians were keen to assert the moral superiority of American capitalism over Soviet communism, which many conservatives considered “godless”.

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